Jun 14, 2007 . USES: Treated bamboo makes an incredibly light and tough building material and can be used for scaffolding, fences, bridges, furniture, flooring and bricks. It is so strong that it is used in the tropics in place of steel reinforcement rods in concrete. SUSTAINABILITY: There are around 1500 species of..
Equipment Supply Contracts. A detailed review of several donor-financed health sector projects revealed numerous instances of the substitution of substandard medical equipment and materials used in the construction of hospitals, including the inoperable medical equipment illustrated in the photos below. Previous similar..
79. 7. THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND THE DEMOLITION. PROCESS. 81. 8. SECONDARY EFFECTS OF BUILDING MATERIAL. SUBSTITUTION. 85. 8.1 The . point of view are cement, wood products, steel, bricks, sand-limestone, ... types. In cases where these data for Western Europe are lacking, data for
As wood is the only significant building material that is grown, we have a natural inclination that building in wood is good for the environment. But under what conditions is this really the case? .. Hemicellulose is a class of structurally diverse polysaccharides consisting of -1,4 linked glycans with various substitutes
May 21, 2016 . Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. .. We selected three different wood densities (500; 750; 1000 kg/m3) to present the potential range of wood densities found in tropical tree species. When timber is used to..
deforestation of tropical rainforests still continues at a high rate, which . timber products as a carbon sink to mitigate climate change. Carbon .. credits for temporary storage of biogenic carbon (use phase) as well as fossil fuel substitution (end of life phase) in wood products. Most notably there is not a consensus about the
Oct 5, 2015 . Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution..
Wood Handbook. Wood as an Engineering Material. Forest Products Laboratory United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Madison, Wisconsin ... equal substitution), energy is saved and emissions avoided each time wood is used, . Unfortunately, deforestation in tropical areas of the world is responsible..
The total fuelwood consumption in tropical countries increased from 1.3 to 1.7 billion m3 during the period 1990 to 1995 (FAO, 1997; Nogueira et al., 1998). . For construction of small buildings in New Zealand, the carbon substitution effect was larger than the direct carbon storage in wood building products (Buchanan and..
Sep 30, 2015 . During 20012013, the international trade in tropical primary timber products (logs; sawnwood; veneers and plywood) decreased by 13% in volume . In some cases, regulations go further, for example in Japanese legislation, which specifically addresses the illegal timber trade through the GohoWood..
The potential market prospects for tropical hardwoods in Europe cannot be considered in isolation from other timber products and non-wood substitutes. ... In all countries, non-tropical species and aluminium are the main competitive materials; PVC accounting for less than 10 percent in the majority of cases (Germany..
Jan 15, 2010 . Displacement factor. Forest products. Greenhouse gas. Meta-analysis. Wood substitution abstract. A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to . The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios .. deforestation in the tropics (Aulisi et al., 2008)
stitution of wood products for functionally equivalent materials and substitution of wood for .. version, i.e. mostly tropical deforestation). .. In the case that these pools increase over time, they act as a net sink, whereas they constitute a net source of emissions in the case that they emit more carbon than they accumulate
In addition to forest ecosystems, wood products are carbon pools that can be strategically managed to mitigate cli- mate change . removal, recycling and substitution effects) and three model-use characteristics (system boundaries, model initialization and evaluation ... (2007). In this case, information on allocation parame-
Section 3.3 focuses on tropical hardwood lumber. Tropical lumber and other wood products have evolved on a different timeline than softwood or temperate hardwood products. Many tropical wood species are among the most ... ucts and engineered wood products and in part to substitution by non-wood products that
Using wood substitutes could save 14 to 31% of global CO2 emis- sions and 12 to 19% of global FF . carbon in fossil fuel (FF), solid wood products, and forests that could become. CO2. One approach is to minimize ... case scenario using forests that are not burned in catastrophic disturbances of the relation between CO2..
on the trade; for example, between tropical countries and the developed consumer countries in Europe. However, implementation of forest certification is not without costs. Like tariffs, it may distort global forest products trade and cause demand substitutions; first, between tropical and temperate wood products, and second..
aspects (4) selected case studies related to wood substitution (5) knowledge gaps and some recommendations . tentials of material and energy use of wood to substitute for non-wood materials and fossil fuels, and .. about sustainable forest management, tropical deforestation and the forest dieback in Central Europe..
+ app. 16 p. Keywords: greenhouse gases, emissions, environmental impacts, carbon balance, wood products, .. 3.3 Case example: material substitution by HWP for other structural materials .33. PART II. C BALANCE .. roundwood production, about 1.5 billion m3 was wood fuel, used mainly in the tropics. Its production..
hardwoods), most can be made from waste during the processing of wood into other products. Mostly softwoods, but a few hardwoods like gum and yellow poplar. Mahogany. Teak. Tropical pines. Radiata pine. Radiata pine. (softwood). Acacia mangium. (hardwood). Eucalyptus. (in this case used as a hardwood). Eastern..